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The Future Development Trend Of CNC Lathes

Dec. 24, 2020

The Future Development Trend Of CNC Lathes

At present, the development of CNC lathe is changing with each passing day. High-speed, high-precision, composite, intelligent, open, parallel drive, networking, extreme, and green have become the development trend and direction of CNC lathes. As a major manufacturing country, China mainly relies on its comparative advantages in labor, price, resources, etc. However, there is still a big gap between China and foreign counterparts in terms of product technological innovation and independent development. China's CNC industry cannot be content with the status quo, and should seize the opportunity to continue to develop, strive to develop its own advanced technology, increase technological innovation and personnel training, improve the company's comprehensive service capabilities, and strive to shorten the gap with developed countries. Strive to realize the transformation of CNC lathe products from low-end to high-end, from primary product processing to high-precision product manufacturing as soon as possible, and to realize the transformation from China's manufacturing to China's creation, from a manufacturing country to a manufacturing powerhouse.

1. High speed

With the rapid development of industries such as automobiles, national defense, aviation, and aerospace, as well as the application of new materials such as aluminum alloys, the requirements for high-speed machining of CNC lathes are getting higher and higher.

(1) Spindle speed: The machine tool adopts an electric spindle (built-in spindle motor), and the maximum spindle speed is up to 200,000r/min;

(2) Feed rate: When the resolution is 0.01μm, the maximum feed rate reaches 240m/min and the precise machining of complex surfaces can be obtained;

(3) Operation speed: The rapid development of microprocessors provides a guarantee for the development of numerical control systems in the direction of high speed and high precision. The development of CPUs has developed to 32-bit and 64-bit numerical control systems, and the frequency has been increased to several hundred MHz and thousands of megahertz. Due to the greatly improved operation speed, the feed speed of up to 24~240m/min can be obtained when the resolution is 0.1μm and 0.01μm;

(4) Tool change speed: At present, the tool change time of foreign advanced machining centers has generally been around 1s, and the high has reached 0.5s.

2. High precision

The accuracy requirements of CNC lathes are now not limited to static geometric accuracy.

More and more attention has been paid to the motion accuracy, thermal deformation, and vibration monitoring and compensation of lathes.

(1) Improve the control precision of CNC system: adopt high-speed interpolation technology, realize continuous feed with small program segments, make CNC control unit refined, and adopt high-resolution position detection device to improve position detection accuracy (Japan has developed and installed 106 pulse/revolution AC servo motor with built-in position detector, its position detection accuracy can reach 0.01μm/pulse), position servo system adopts feedforward control and nonlinear control methods;

(2) Adopt error compensation technology: adopt backlash compensation, screw pitch error compensation and tool error compensation technology to add V core to the thermal deformation error and space of the equipment

(3) Use grid to check and improve the accuracy of the motion trajectory of the machining center, and predict the machining accuracy of the machine tool through simulation to ensure the positioning accuracy and repeat positioning accuracy of the machine tool, so that its performance is stable for a long time, and it can complete multiple operations under different operating conditions. Kind of processing tasks, and ensure the processing quality of parts.

3. Complex functions

The meaning of a composite lathe refers to the realization or as much as possible to complete the processing of multiple elements from the rough to the finished product on a lathe. According to its structural characteristics, it can be divided into two types: process compound type and process compound type. The use of composite lathes for processing reduces the auxiliary time for workpiece loading and unloading, replacement and adjustment of tools and the errors generated in the intermediate process, improves parts processing accuracy, shortens product manufacturing cycles, improves production efficiency and manufacturers’ market response capabilities. Compared with the traditional production method with decentralized processes, it has obvious advantages.

The compounding of the machining process has also led to the development of modular and multi-axis lathes.

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4. Intelligent control

With the development of artificial intelligence technology, in order to meet the development needs of manufacturing flexibility and manufacturing automation, the degree of intelligence of CNC lathes is constantly improving. It is embodied in the following aspects:

(1) Self-adaptive control technology of the machining process: in order to identify the impact of the tool Force, wear, and damage state, use traditional or modern algorithms for identification by monitoring the cutting force, spindle and feed motor power, current, voltage and other information in the machining process.

(2) Intelligent optimization and selection of processing parameters: use modern intelligent methods to construct an expert system or model-based "intelligent optimization and selector of processing parameters" based on the experience of process experts or technicians, general and special rules of parts processing. Use it to obtain optimized processing parameters, so as to achieve the purpose of improving programming efficiency and processing technology level, and shortening production preparation time.

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